Transportation is a very important for the economic development of European Union. After every enlargement, the Union is facing the same problems with the different cost structures of its new members, this aspect has a negative influence on competitive environment in all the member countries. In response to the new development of the market and the inconsistent use of the old directives, the harmonisation and reformation of framework conditions in the road haulage sector has taken place in European Union.1 The Regulation (ES) No1071/2009 uniformed and modernised former directives according to the admission to the occupation of road haulage operator.2 The goal of this thesis is to analyse the conditions imposed by the regulation and define their influence on the undertakings in the different countries of European Union. After analysing the adapted conditions to pursue the occupation of road transport operator, this thesis will regard the positive and negative aspects of relocation to the “new” member states on the example of Poland, Romania, Czech Republic and Hungary. The evaluation of the economic development and administrative framework will help to define risks and perspectives of relocation to these countries. The following case study grants a deeper insight into the matter and analyses the profitability of road freight companies in the mentioned countries in comparison to one in Austria. Finally, the study displays the reason, why so many freight companies are relocating to Eastern Europe und presents the perspectives of relocation to the chosen countries.