Leadership competence is becoming a buzz word as more and more project-oriented companies seek ways to find out which competencies will be decisive for the future. This paper gives an overview about the different leadership theories and leading models, as well as it discusses the different leadership competencies in project-oriented companies. The analysis is based on four important parts. The first part explains the different influencing factors which currently have a very strong impact on project-oriented companies. The second part discusses the general contents of project manage-ment, as well as the most important characteristics and organizational forms of such companies. The following part debates leadership of employees in project-oriented companies. This chapter presents an overview about the advantages and disadvantages of the different leadership theories and leading models in general. Subsequently the leadership in project-oriented companies will be described in detail. The last part elaborately controverts leadership competencies. In a final step, the results of the literature will be confronted with the results of the interviews conducted. This paper will show which leadership competencies will be crucial in the future as compared to the ones currently viewed as most relevant. Based on the results, the author of the paper recommends that the focus of man-agement training in the future should be particularly concentrated on social and communication skills.