This Master Thesis intends to explain the complexity of the relationship between the NATO and the Russian Federation on the basis of the NATO-planned Active Layered Theatre Ballistic Missile Defense Shield in Eastern Europe. The Paper should clear up that their relation is drenched in mistrust and almost every initiative from the opposite side is exploited to spread the hostile atmosphere in the relationship and to provoke each other. This Thesis tries to make clear if the planned missile defense in Eastern Europe is a technical threat to Russia or just symbolizes a calculated political threat for the NATO-Russia relations. It also questions the function the missile defense pretends to have according to the NATO-declaration for the shield. Additionally it interprets the relationship between Russia and some member states of the NATO to give an insight about why Russia sees the Shield as a threat, how Russia is perceived in western countries and why the shield even caused a controversy within the alliance, which lasted at least until the Ukrainecrisis appeared. Furthermore the thesis tries to figure out what the future of the planned missile defense shield and the relationship between the NATO and Russia could look like.