Leaders have an important influence on the performance of their employees. But especially in projectoriented companies leaders lack in authority and still have to maintain a high level of employees motivation and performance without the classical incentives. Without any formal mechanism of sanctions leaders need to break new ground with alternative management techniques. The project management tries to maintain employee performance with alternative management models. This master thesis consists of an empirical and literary study. The theoretical findings are illustrated by reference of the chosen literature and by analysis these literature. Based on the results of the literature review an interview guide was created which subsequently led the semistandardized interviews as part of a guided discussion. With the help of the interviews, the framework for implementations of leadership are analyzed with the aim to find out what easily can be changed or has to be changed to enable alternative leadership models possible. Therefore, this master thesis tries to explain how leaders can maintain the employees performance without formal penalty or reward mechanisms. In a first step, characteristics and features of leadership as well as requirements and critical factors of personnel management are analyzed. In a second step, this paper deals with basic determinants of personnel management and how those are affected by leadership style, leaders and the organization itself affect those. The outcomes of this work are eight different authorityfree leadership approaches with different emphases. Basically, all approaches include the topics trust, appreciation and meaningfulness. The key factor for the success of leaders without authority is the correct and responsible handling of these instruments. This is only possible on the basis of appreciation / respect and agreement of individual interests and the organizational goal.