Despite many struggles in society and attempts by politics we are still far from being a gender-equal society in western, industrialized nations. The reasons for the ongoing inequality between men and women are manifold and are deeply rooted in our societys perception of what constitutes men and women as such. This thesis discusses two main con-cepts in the field of womens and mens studies, namely the “Theory of Sexual Difference” and within the realm of masculinity studies, Connells “Theory of Hegemonic Masculinity”. Both concepts are put in relation to the current measures implemented by three Austrian companies that serve as case examples. By analyzing their concepts on how to promote women in their organizations and how to reconcile demands of their employees private and professional lives it is possible to determine whether they tend to follow the traditional way and focus their gender-equality measures exclusively on women, therefore applying the recommendations by the strategic concept of “thinking the difference”, or if they include both genders in promoting gender quality and put emphasis on improving the work-life balance of their staff as a whole, for example by improving the balance between family and career. The latter approach suggests a move towards a more modern perception of gender roles per se and a turn away from the hegemonic type of masculinity (men being regarded as the sole breadwinner of the family), by allowing and promoting alternative models for the male gender roles, e.g. the caring masculinities. In the past gender equality policies have been regarded purely as an issue concerning women, lately however also men have been taking into account and have become increasingly the subjects of gender policies within society and political institutions such as the European Union.